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Dental Dictionary

Adhesive prosthesis is a structure that is fixed to the abutment teeth with the help of special materials to replace the lost tooth. This dental restoration is minimally invasive as teeth abutment are exposed to minimal manipulation. Mainly adhesive prosthesis is used as a temporary tool.

Allergy is an individual reaction of the human immune system that manifests itself when exposed to an allergen (dust, foreign proteins, plant pollen, medicine, food, insect poison, chemicals, etc.). Allergy has a wide range of clinical manifestations: swelling of the nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis, spasms of the respiratory tract, hearing loss, headache, skin reactions manifested in various rashes, itching, dermatitis, etc.). To prevent allergic reactions to certain medicines during dental and any other treatment, special allergy testing (allergen skin tests) is performed.

Allergy test is a test for identifying a substance that can provoke a person’s individual reaction of the immune system (allergy), expressed in general painful condition and other clinical manifestations (skin rashes, swelling of the nasal mucosa and airway cramps, etc.).

Alveolitis (alveolus pain) is the inflammation process of the alveolar socket after the tooth is removed. This type of complication most often may occur after a complicated removal. It occurs as there is no formed blood clot in the alveolar socket so the normal processes of its healing are disrupted. With a timely visit to your dentist, this inflammatory process can be eliminated.

Alveolar ridge is the part of the jaw bone in which the tooth is located. For the upper jaw this piece is called an upper alveolar ridge, and a lower alveolar ridge for the lower jaw. Alveolar ridge consists of outer and inner paries and spongy substance with tooth sockets where the teeth are placed.

Alveolus is a hole (or alveola) in the alveolar process where the tooth root is located.

Anomaly of occlusion is an abnormal bite of the dentition occurred due to abnormal occlusion of the dentition. Anomalies of occlusion may occur during the period of growth of permanent teeth or after injury. Now for the occlusion correction effective orthodontic appliances and splits, as well as braces, are applied.

Apex locator is a special electric device used in endodontic treatment (root canal therapy) for determining the exact length of the root canal. The principle of operation of this device is based on measuring the electrical resistance of the apex of the root of the tooth. Apex locator determines the root length in mm and shows the apex point.

Bar is an active part of the orthodontic devices (bracket systems, retainers). The movement of teeth is performed through its activation.

Bite is an interaction of dentition upon complete closure of upper and lower jaws. Congenital bite abnormalities or its deformity during the permanent teething require specialized orthodontic treatment with the use of individual removable and fixed structures (bracket systems, orthodontic appliances, and plates, Invisalign transparent aligners).

Bite splinting is the elimination of tooth mobility by its joining with another tooth.

Braces are an orthodontic device sealed to the front surface of the tooth to keep the braces, used for the correction of occlusion and tooth position. It can be metal, plastic, ceramic or sapphire.

Braces system is one of the most effective fixed orthodontic devices used in teeth position correction in children and adults. The system consists of a supporting part (rings and braces, fixed on the teeth) and an active part (the bar through which the teeth move in three planes).

Bridgeworks are fixed structures used for dentition restoration upon the loss of one or a few teeth. Bridgeworks consist of several metal-ceramic crowns and artificial teeth, which are fixed on the supporting teeth to replace the lost teeth, that were previously placed between them.

Bruxism is an involuntary, uncontrolled teeth squeezing accompanied by a distinctive “gnashing”. Mainly bruxism can be observed at night, during the sleep (rarely during the day) and leads to increased abrasion of teeth enamel, premature destruction of crowns and fillings. Bruxism can often be a symptom of TMJD disease.

Bugel prosthesis is a partially removable denture that consists of artificial teeth and a plastic base in the shape of gum, attached to a special metal bar (bugel). Bugel bar is very thin and firm, so such prosthesis does not cause much discomfort in patients.

Bugel prosthesis with attachments is a partially removable prosthesis fixed with the help of a special attachment system (attachments) to the ceramic crown with metal that is fixed on abutment teeth. This allows to provide a reliable fixation of the prosthesis and you don`t see the attachments as they are inside the prosthesis.

Bugel prosthesis with clammers is a partially removable prosthesis fixed on abutment teeth with the help of special hooks (clammers).  Such constructions are easily removable but have one aesthetic flaw – clammers may be noticeable.

Caries is the involvement of dental tissues due to exposure to bacteria and microorganisms. Carious defects at the initial stage are observed in the form of stains which lead to the enamel destruction phase (holes in teeth appear). Filling of the affected areas is a traditional way of caries treatment. Also today, effective methods for the prevention of caries (ozone therapy, tooth fluoridation, fissure sealing in children) are used.

Closed bite is an anomaly of occlusion characterized by a significant overlap of the lower teeth (by more than half of the crown) by the upper teeth. As a result of such a violation, the closing of the teeth of the upper and lower jaw does not occur. Various braces are used today to treat this malocclusion.

Closed curettage of the gingival pocket is a procedure of the for removing subgingival tartar and inflamed tissue in the tooth area.

Coagulation is a subtraction technique using the heated tool during surgical operations.

Complete denture is a removable denture used for the restoration of the dentition in the complete absence of teeth on the lower or upper jaw. It consists of 14 artificial teeth located on a wide plate made of plastic in the natural color of the gum.

Composite is a modern type of plastic that includes an inorganic filler. Composites are used for various aesthetic surgical restorations in dentistry.

Curettage (of the alveolar sockets) is scraping (scrubbing) of the alveolar socket from chronic foci of infection, various granulations foreign bodies (filling material, tooth flakes, etc.)

Cystis is a cavity that has a posterior and its content and is formed in the jaw bone in the area around the tooth.

Deepening of the vestibule of the oral cavity is a surgery that due to the movement of soft tissues allows us to create a deepening in the vestibule of the oral cavity.

Dental calculus is hard or soft bacterial plaque that is tightly fixed on the surface of the teeth or their neck area. Dental calculus appears due to poor hygiene and in the advanced phase can lead to the appearance of carious foci and the development of the inflammatory process in periodontal tissues.

Dental cast models are the imprints of the teeth for which special material is used.  They are essential for the following creation of the diagnostic models.

Dental dam is a special latex bar used to isolate the tooth (one or a few) from the rest of the oral cavity and saliva during dental treatment.

Dental plaque is a hard formation on the surface of the tooth and neck area of the teeth. Dental plaque appears when dental tartar is not removed timely (professional oral hygiene) and can lead to more serious dental diseases (e.g. periodontitis).

Dentistry is a science that studies the structure, functions of the tissues of the oral cavity, ways of treatment and prevention of dentition diseases.

Dentogingival pocket is the space between the gingival margin and the neck area of the tooth.

Depophoresis is a method applied in endodontic treatment for cleaning tooth canals using copper hydroxide, which has anti-inflammatory effects.

Diagnosis is an accurate medical opinion about a particular disease which is determined on the basis of comprehensive diagnostics, patient complaints, data from a physician’s examination and other necessary examinations (for example, laboratory tests, digital diagnostics, etc.).

Diagnostic casts are gypsum models of teeth, made by an individual cast. They are necessary for accurate measurements and selection of individual elements of medical devices.

Disintegration – separation, from Latin “dismemberment of the whole into its constituent parts”.

Dissection is the excision of hard tooth tissues using burs or a laser. Dissection may be needed for various dental treatments, e.g. to eliminate carious foci using filling material, for endodontic treatment, aesthetic restorations of teeth, etc.

Distoclusion is an occlusion anomaly characterized by significant extension of the upper teeth forward in relation to the lower upon teeth joining. To eliminate the distoclusion, treatment with the use of special orthodontic structures can be prescribed.

Drainage is a special rubber or silicon strap that is placed in the incision of soft tissue to prevent its closure, installed to improve the outflow of exudate (liquid secreted from small blood vessels in case of the inflammatory process).

Edema (flux) is the development of inflammatory reaction in periosteum region on the gum, associated with the fluid accumulation in soft tissues. Edema may occur in the result of an injury or advanced inflammatory process.

Embedded tooth is a tooth that has a wrong position in the dentition (crooked, outside the dentition). This pathology can be observed both on upper and lower jaws.

Exudate is fluid accumulation in the tissues that appear during the inflammatory process and may contain microbial products (purulent), or blood (hemorrhagic).

Face mask is an additional construction used in orthodontic treatment along with the braces to stimulate the growth and right development of the upper jaw and normalization of the inclination of the upper front teeth.

Facial arch is a special device used during the orthodontic treatment along with the braces to prevent forward and backward movement of the lateral teeth.

File is a thin metal instrument of complex structure for processing the posteriors of the root canal. It may be manual or machine (for the tip).

Filling polishing is smoothing of the tooth fillings (elimination of roughness or residues of filling material) and adjusting it to the patient’s bite.

Filling relining is a process of removal of roughness, overhanging edges and other deformations of the filling material.

Fissure is a natural deepening (or sulcus) on the grinding surface. Considering that these fissures are hard to reach for daily hygiene microbes may be accumulated in that region that further leads to the formation of a carious foci. Fissure sealing is an effective method of caries prevention in pediatric dentistry.

Fistulous tract is a canal in the jaw bone, connecting the granuloma or cyst with the oral cavity.

Fissure sealing is an effective method of caries prevention applied in pediatric dentistry. Some special filling material, preventing the occurrence of the carious defect, is introduced into the medical procedure, the purpose of which is the introduction into the fissure of the tooth of medical filling material to prevent the occurrence of the carious defect, into tooth fissures (natural pits on the grinding surface).

Flap surgery is a surgical operation necessary to remove inflamed tissue deep-seated under the gum or calculus. Flap surgeries are performed with open access: the gum is dissected, the altered tissue is removed and the gum is further sutured. These surgeries are performed under anesthesia.

Floss (dental floss) is individual oral hygiene product used to clean interdental spaces.

Fraenkel device is a special removable orthodontic construction used to correct bite for children (mainly in the age of 4-11). It is also called “functions regulator”. This is a two-jaw device comprising of a metal frame made from medical wire (with a diameter less than 1mm), labial pelottes and buccal shields. One of the main advantages of this apparatus is the formation of proper muscle function.

Gingival retraction is a procedure to expose the tooth root.

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gum tissue without the dismemberment of dentogingival junction. Gingivitis can become chronical or appear on the background of health status changes. With timely diagnosis, the necessary treatment is carried out, at later stages this disease can progress to periodontitis and lead to other unpleasant consequences.

Gingivotomy is a surgery with the subsequent incision of the gingival socket paries (in case of removal of purulent abscesses or performing an open curettage procedure). As a rule, gingivotomy may be needed in the treatment of moderate and severe periodontitis when significant accumulations of purulent discharge are formed in the gingival space.

Granuloma is an area of ​​inflamed tissue which is induration near the apex of the tooth root in the jaw bone around the root of the tooth. Complications of caries in progress or pulpitis can cause granulomas.

Gutta-percha is a special material for the tooth canals filling. “Cold” gutta-percha is used as pins, and “hot” is used as a liquid to fill micro spaces and micro root canals.

Hematoma is an accumulation of blood in soft tissues in the result of open or closed injuries with the subsequent damage (or rupture) of blood vessels.

“Hood” removal (pericoronitis) is a surgical procedure implying the excision of the mucous membrane over the cutting tooth. Food and microorganisms periodically accumulate under the “hood” and inflammation develops. This procedure is mainly performed during the third molar teething.

Hypoplasia of the enamel is the violation of the normal development and maturation of enamel in the process of tooth formation, provoked by infectious and other diseases of the mother during pregnancy. Externally, enamel hypoplasia can be seen as distinctive irregularities or matte spots on the surface of the tooth.

Impaction is an unerupted tooth that is in the jaw bone.

Implant is an artificial construction that consists of a few components and is used for the implantation into the bone tissue with the following adhesion and serves as the basis for the prosthesis. Implants are used in dental prosthetics to restore the dentition.

Implant installation is a surgery during which a bone bed is created, where the implant is then inserted.

Implant-supported bridge is a fixed structure consisting of several metal-ceramic crowns and artificial teeth, which is fixed either on implants (that is, titanium rods implanted into the jaw) or on the implant and abutment teeth. Such constructions are used in dental prosthetics to restore the dentition after the loss of one or more teeth.

Intraradicular fixator is a special pin that is introduced into the root canal for the improvement of the fixation of fillings or tooth crowns. It’s applied in endodontic treatment.

Intraoral incision is the dissection of the soft tissues of the oral cavity. Used in surgery in case of acute inflammation (during gingival abscess and other cases).

Laser treatment is a use of the laser in therapeutic dentistry treatment. The exposure to laser radiation makes it possible to create ideal conditions in living tissues for their subsequent restoration.

Ligature is a very thin medical wire or special elastic ring used for subsequent fixation of the dental arch.

Lingual from Latin “lingua” – tongue. Braces systems, which are strengthened from the inside of the teeth.

Lip Bumper is a special orthodontic device that consists of rings fixed on the lower grinder teeth and a removable bar that is placed between the lips and teeth surface on the lower jaw. Lip Bumpers are used to create the necessary space for lower teeth.

Local anesthesia is anesthesia of one or a few teeth by introducing an anesthetic drug substance into soft tissues. Applique local anesthesia with the use of anesthetic gels and pastas may be also applied.

Locked jaw is a state at which opening of the mouth is obstructed or incomplete as a result of spasm of the masticatory muscles.

Matrix is a special tape made of celluloid or metal, covering the tooth. It is used to form a filling of the correct shape.

Metal-free ceramic is a technology used in aesthetic prosthetics. A fixed prosthesis with a framework of aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide and a ceramic layer are used for dental restoration. High aesthetics due to the absence of an opaque metal frame is its distinctive feature.

Mesial bite is an occlusion anomaly characterized by the anterior position of the lower jaw bone. Special orthodontic treatment is used to correct the mesial bite.

Mixed dentition is the period when temporary teeth are replaced with the permanent teeth (usually at the age of 5-6 – 12-13).

Mouthguard is the removable construction that fully repeats the shape and teeth arrangement. It is made of thin plastic of varying degrees of hardness. Mouthguards cover teeth from all sides and are used in different spheres, e.g. for special hygiene, curing and whitening gels. Transparent aligners Invisalign are used for teeth alignment. Sports mouthguards perform a protection function.

Obliteration is a narrowing or closing the lumen of something, e.g. tooth canal due to age-related changes or in the result of inflammatory process or complication after previous treatment.

Obturation is the procedure which may be needed during endodontic treatment: root canal is filled with the filling material (gutta-percha or special pasta).

Open curettage of the gingival pocket is the removal of deep-lying dental deposits and inflamed tissues with open access with dissection of the gums, followed by polishing the surface of the tooth root and suturing the gums. This is done in the case of deep damage to the tissues surrounding the tooth, an extensive deep inflammatory process.

Open occlusion is an occlusion anomaly characterized by a lack of closure between the upper and lower teeth, often in the anterior part.

Orthodontics is a section of dentistry, which is engaged in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of dental deformities and pathologies of facial maxillary bones (correction of incorrect teeth positioning and bite correction, TMJD disease elimination).

Orthopantomogram (OPTG) is panoramic X-ray research of the dentition which gives a picture of the state of temporary and permanent teeth, temporomandibular joints and maxillary sinuses. It is necessary for complex dental diagnostics.

Orthopedics is a section of dentistry that deals with the compensation of defects in the visible part of teeth, in the absence of one or several teeth, with complete or partial loss of teeth.

Osteomyelitis is an inflammatory process that is accompanied by purulent discharge and occurs in bone tissue and bone marrow. It can also affect the surrounding soft tissues. Mainly this disease is provoked by pathogenic bacterium or microorganisms. Osteomyelitis is treated in a hospital setting.

Pathological abrasion is the process of mechanical damage to tooth enamel (abrasion), leading to a decrease in the height of the crown of the tooth. Pathological abrasion may occur due to various factors, such as malocclusion, bruxism, uneven chewing load on the teeth, lack of teeth, the presence of fillings in need of correction, etc.

Perforation is a hole used for the performance of necessary medical procedures. For example, it can be the perforation of the posterior, the root or the bottom of the cavity of a tooth for using medicines or filling material.

Pericoronitis is an inflammation of the soft tissues surrounding the cutting tooth. Most often occurs in the area of the third molars, due to the lack of space for the normal cutting of the tooth, which leads to soft tissue injury on occlusion, disruption of self-cleaning processes (food may be accumulated under the “hood” and provoke inflammation).

Periodontitis is an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding the tooth with the subsequent deformation of the alveolar process. Such an inflammatory process occurs in the periodontal membrane as a result of neglected bacterial plaque (or tartar) formed on teeth and in the gingival pocket.

Periodontium is a complex of connective tissues from cells that hold the tooth in the bone alveola.

Periodontology is a section of dentistry aimed at studying, treatment and prevention of tissue diseases, surrounding the tooth (periodontal membrane): gums, bone tissues in which the tooth is placed. The most common periodontal diseases are periodontitis, periodontal disease, and gingivitis.

Periodontitis is an inflammatory process in the region of connective tissue, holding the tooth in the bone alveola (periodontium). Periodontitis may occur after the injury or as a result of complications of neglected carious foci.

Periosteal coverage is a thin layer of dense connective tissue that covers the surface of a jaw bone.

Periosteotomy is a type of surgical operation, namely, it’s the dissection of the periosteum with partial detachment from the bone. Often accompanied by the installation of drainage.

Periostitis is an inflammation of periosteum with the formation of suppurative foci between the periosteum and the bone. Mainly periostitis is a complication of the periodontitis. It is characterized by the appearance of a pronounced swelling of soft tissues, pain, significant changes in the general condition. Its treatment requires urgent surgical care.

Photodynamic therapy (FDT) is a technique used in modern dentistry in the complex treatment of periodontal diseases. Photodynamic therapy suggests laser exposure to microflora with the previous special photosensitizing preparation. This technique allows us to effectively eliminate pathogens.

Platelet mass is part of the blood obtained by centrifugation, containing a large number of platelets. When introduced into the surgical wound significantly accelerates and improves the formation of bone tissue.

Post-and-core inlay is a type of molded construction that is individually manufactured in the dental laboratory. Post-and-core inlay is used during the endodontic treatment. It is fixed in the canals of the root of the tooth for further restoration of the crown part of the tooth.

Promotion means to promote the apparatus which is to bring it to the condition of given functional load, e.g. we talk about orthodontic constructions, special apparatuses and retainers, which work is aimed at the tooth position correction. It also can be occlusal splints used in comprehensive treatment of TMJD.

Protective metal crown is a crown, which is mounted on a broken primary tooth if it is impossible to restore it with a filling material.

Pulp is a neurovascular bundle located in the cavity of the tooth (pulp chamber).

Pulpitis is an inflammatory process of the tooth pulp (or dental nerve). Most often it is provoked by microorganisms and germs, or may be a result of an injury.

Radiovisiograph is a special digital X-ray device used for spot filming of the tooth, which is very informative for a doctor. This type of X-ray study is safe for patients as modern apparatuses are characterized by an absolutely small amount or radiation, which allows performing the radiovisiography during pregnancy and for dental diagnostics for children.

Reconstruction is a procedure of changing the tooth shape using special filling material.

Reinforcement is a procedure for creating a framework for a root or crown filling with the help of a special material that compensates for the missing filling material and provides redistribution of the load on a large area. For example, a glass fiber post can be used when filling the tooth canal.

Relocation of a removable denture is the adjustment of the surface of the removable denture to the oral cavity mucosa that has changed from prolonged wearing of the denture, by applying a new layer of plastic.

Removable apparatus with additional active elements is an orthodontic construction, used in orthodontic treatment. It consists of a plastic base in contact with the oral mucosa and teeth, and screws welded into it, wire parts and springs that make the movement of the teeth possible.

Removable denture for children is a special construction used in orthodontic treatment for replacing untimely removed temporary or permanent teeth in children.

Removal of granulomas is a surgical procedure to remove the inflamed tissue of the oral cavity. It can be performed in two ways: removal of the granuloma with the tooth or resection of the root apex.

Resection is a surgical operation that suggests an excision or removal of a part of something (bone or root).

Resection of the apex of the root is a surgical operation that is performed to remove a chronic lesion of infection at the apex of the root.

Restoration is the reconstruction of the shape of a tooth deformed as a result of a carious process or injury.

Retainer (retention apparatus) is a special device used for the consolidation of orthodontic treatment results. There are plastic removable or non-removable metal retainers that are fixed on the inner side of the teeth. Wearing time is from several months (or years) or during the whole life.

Ring is the basic part of the orthodontic apparatus with a special lock fixing intraoral bows, face bows and bumpers.

Scaling is the procedure for professional oral hygiene aimed at removing pigment or bacterial plaque (or tartar) from the crown or root of the tooth.

Separation is the aesthetic contouring of the teeth, aimed at reducing the thickness of the enamel of the side surfaces followed by a protective coating. This method allows us to create the correct shape and get additional space for teeth movement.

Simple removable apparatus (removable plate) is a special construction used in orthodontic treatment. It consists of a plastic base in contact with the oral mucosa and teeth.

Single ceramic crown is used in dental restorations. This crown consists of a metal dental backing coated with ceramics.

Sinus augmentation is a surgery that may be needed at dental prosthetics. It is performed in the maxillary sinus region and is aimed at the increase of the volume of the alveolar bone for the subsequent introduction of the implant.

Surgery is a surgical procedure with the dissection of tissues, their excision or stitching.

Test-tube brush is a special tool applied in individual oral hygiene. It has a shape of a cylindrical or conical brush and used for cleaning orthopedic structures and wide interdental spaces.

Teleroentgenogram is an overview X-ray of the skull in which the bone skeleton and soft tissue state is projected. In dentistry, this diagnostic method is used when planning treatment aimed at correcting the occlusion, total prosthetics, or in case of injuries of the maxillofacial region.

Therapy from old Greek “medical attendance”, “treatment”; is the science that studies the causes, course, methods of treatment and prevention of diseases.

Tooth apposition is a setting of the dislocated tooth to its original position.

Tooth immobilization is a tooth immobilization procedure carried out using special splints, medical wire, and dental material.

Tooth replantation is tooth removal to eliminate chronical foci of infection with its following transplantation into its own alveolar socket.

Tooth stud is a decoration of gold, composite or ceramics, fixed to the front surface of the tooth.

Trepanation of the tooth crown is the excision of tooth tissue to ensure access to the root canals. Trepanation of the tooth crown may be needed during endodontic treatment.

Veneer is a non-removable thinnest plate made of ceramics or modern composite materials, fixed to the outside part of teeth. Veneers allow not only to create a Hollywood smile but also to fix many external flaws: cracks and chips on the surface of the teeth, darkened areas of enamel, etc.

Veneering (direct veneering) is a modern method of aesthetic restoration of teeth, which involves the application of filling material on the labial surface of the front teeth.

Warranty is an obligation that is issued to the patient for the materials used and the work performed by the doctor. For example, various fixed structures, filling materials, etc. have a warranty period.

Wedge-shaped defect is non-carious destruction of the dental tissue and is characterized by the occurrence of the wedge-shaped defect in the neck area of the tooth. As a rule, this pathology is mainly seen on the frontal teeth; one of the reasons for wedge-shaped defect occurrence is a chronical overload (e.g. due to bruxism).

Whitening is a usage of special whitening gels and other means for teeth enamel whitening.

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Avanto (Center) Dental Clinic

стоматология в киеве центр

1. By Metro – Palace Ukraine, walk to the side of Predslavynska St., left turn into Novopecherskyi Lane. The clinic is placed in Prestige Hall residential complex, the entrance is from the side of Vasyl Tyutyunnik St.
2. By car – you can get to the central entrance to the clinic from Ionna Pavla II St. (the former – Patrisa Lumumby St.), turn into Vasyl Tyutyunnik St.

Avanto (Podil) Dental Clinic

киев стоматология подольский район

1. By Metro – Kontraktova Ploshcha, walk on the street Kostiantynivska towards “Zhovten” cinema. The entrance to “cinematographic” arche.
2. By car – you can get to the central entrance of the clinic from Kostiantynivska St. through “cinematographic” arche. It is also possible to park a car in the parking lot near the square on the street Yaroslavska.

Avanto (Pechersk) Dental Clinic

киев стоматология печерский район

1. By Metro – Pecherska, walk on the street Lasya Ukrainka to the side of The Ivan Bohun Military High School. The building where the clinic is placed is located behind the CEC building and has a wave-shaped roof.
2. By car – the first arrival to the central entrance of the clinic is possible from Lesya Ukrainka St. behind The Ivan Bohun Military High School. Also it is possible to get there from the side of Staronavodnytska St., the turn is near the pointer of TSARSKY sport club. The building where the clinic is placed has a wave-shaped roof.