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Dental Dictionary

Adhesive prosthesis is a prosthesis that is fixed to the abutment teeth with the help of special materials and is used mainly as a temporary tool.

Activating means to promote the apparatus means to bring it to such a state when he begins to actively act in a given direction on the position of the teeth.

Allergy is a painful condition of the human`s body which is manifested in the intolerance of any substances.

Allergy test is a test for identifying (determining) a substance that causes a painful condition in a person (a painful reaction of the body).

Alveolus is a hole in the alveolar ridge where the tooth is located.

Alveolitis (alveolus pain) is the inflammation of the alveolar socket of the removed tooth. It is a type of complications after the tooth removal that occurs most often after complicated removal. It occurs because there is no formed blood clot in the alveolar socket because of which the normal processes of its healing are disrupted (not at all the conventional idea “they infected the wound”).

Alveolar ridge is the part of the jaw bone in which the tooth is located.

Anomaly of occlusion is an abnormal bite of the dentition.

Apex locator is an electric device for determining the length of the root canal from the change in resistance to electric current. It shows the root length in mm, apex point.

Fraenkel device is a complex removable orthodontic construction, made in several stages to correct bite in children.

Reinforcement of teeth is the creation of a framework for a root or coronal filling of a special material that compensates for the shortcomings of the filling and redistributes the load on a larger area. For example, the use of fiber post for dental canal filling.

Metal-free ceramic is fixed prosthesis with a framework of aluminum oxide or zirconium oxide and a ceramic layer. High aesthetics due to the absence of an opaque metal frame is its distinctive feature.

Platelet rich mass is part of the blood obtained by centrifugation, containing a large number of platelets. When introduced into the surgical wound significantly accelerates and improves the formation of bone tissue.

Braces are an orthodontic device sealed to the front surface of the tooth to keep the bar. It can be metal, plastic, ceramic, sapphire, engolden or fluorescent.

Braces system is a fixed orthodontic device, which consists of a support part – rings and braces, fixed on the teeth and their active part – the bar through which the teeth move in three planes.

Bruxism is an involuntary, uncontrolled squeezing and gnashing of teeth at night (sometimes during the day). Most often is accompanied by increased abrasion of teeth and a gradual loss of enamel of the chewing surface.

Bugel prosthesis is a removable partial denture that consists of artificial teeth and gum. In Bugel prosthesis a thin elegant metal bar is used instead of wide bar. Due to this, the patient gets used to the prosthesis faster and easier.

Bugel prosthesis with attachments is fixed with the help of a special attachment system (attachments) to the ceramic crown with metal that is fixed on abutment teeth. This allows us to provide a reliable fixation of the prosthesis and a good cosmetic result (you don`t see the attachments as they are inside the prosthesis.

Bugel prosthesis with clammers is fixed on abutment teeth with the help of special hooks (clammers).

Veneer is a non-removable elegant ceramic or composite plate, which is fixed on the outside of the front broken, darkened or dislocated teeth.

Veneering (direct veneering) is a cosmetic (aesthetic) imposition of filling material on the lip surface of the front teeth.

Intraradicular fixator is a pin that is introduced into the root canal for the improvement of the fixation of fillings or tooth crowns.

Intraoral incision is the dissection of the soft tissues of the oral cavity due to acute inflammation (for example, during gingival abscess).

Guaranty is the guaranty that is given to the patient for the work performed by the doctor and the materials used.

Hematoma is an accumulation of blood in soft tissues in the result of an injury.

Gingivitis is an inflammation of the gum tissue without involving the bone tissue.

Gingivotomy is an incision in the gum area.

Hypoplasia of the enamel is the violation of the normal development and maturation of enamel in the process of tooth formation, provoked by infectious and other diseases of the mother during pregnancy or the child, manifested in the form of dull spots or irregularities.

Closed bite is an anomaly characterized by a significant overlap of the lower teeth (by more than half of the crown) by the upper teeth.

Granuloma is a limited area of inflamed tissue at the apex of the tooth root. It is a chronic focus of infection, located in the thickness of the bone.

Granuloma is a focus of inflammation in the jaw bone around the root of the tooth.

Lip Bumper is an orthodontic device that consists of rings and is fixed on the lower grinder teeth and a removable bar that is placed between the lips and teeth surface on the lower jaw. Used to create space for lower teeth.

Gutta-percha (GP) is a special material for the tooth canals sealing. It can be “cold” in the form of cores or “hot” when it is introduced into the canal in a heated state.

Disintegration – separation.

Depophoresis is a method of introduction of copper ions with anti-inflammatory action to the apex of the root.

Depulpation is a pulp (nerve) removal of the tooth to eliminate inflammation process or injury.

Diagnosis is the process of determination of the disease on the basis of the patient’s complaints, the data of the doctor’s examination and the necessary examinations.

Diagnostic casts are stone model of teeth, made by an individual cast. They are necessary for accurate measurements and selection of elements of medical devices.

Distoclusion is an anomaly characterized by the extension of the upper teeth forward or lower teeth back.

Embedded tooth is a tooth that has a wrong position in the dentition (crooked, outside the dentition).

Drainage is a rubber or silicon strap that is placed in the incision of soft tissue to prevent its closure, installed to improve the outflow of exudate.

Bar is an active part of the device; the movement of teeth is performed through its activation.

Test-tube brush is a hygiene product in the form of a cylindrical or conical brush for cleaning orthopedic structures and wide interdental spaces.

Non-surgical debridement of the dentogingival pocket is the removal of the deep-lying subgingival dental calculus and the inflamed tissue in the area of the tooth.

Fissure sealing is a medical procedure, the purpose of which is the introduction into the fissure of the tooth of medical filling material to prevent the occurrence of carious defect.

The protective metal crown is a crown, which is mounted on a broken primary tooth (if it is impossible to make it with a filling material).

Dental plaque is a hard, calcified formation on the surface of the tooth, mostly located in the cervical area of the teeth adjacent to the excretory ducts of the large salivary glands. The amount of plaque depends on the state of mineral metabolism in the body and the hygienic condition of the oral cavity.

Dental calculus is hard and soft bacterial plaque that is tightly fixed on the surface of the teeth due to poor hygiene. It is the primary factor in the development of inflammation in periodontal tissues.

Dentogingival pocket is the space between the gum and the tooth.

Tooth immobilization is immobilization of the tooth with the help of splints, wire, dental material.

Implant is, as a rule, it is a titanium pin that is implanted into the jaw and serves as the basis for the installation of a crown or other prosthesis.

“Hood” removal (pericoronitis) is the excision of a section of the mucous membrane over the cutting tooth. As a rule, food and microorganisms periodically accumulate under the “hood” and inflammation gradually develops.

Mouthguard is the removable construction made of special plastic of varying degrees of hardness. It covers teeth from all sides connecting them into a single unit. It allows us to protect them from the increased abrasion (use overnight); to strengthen them in case of hypermobility (paradontosis); to protect from injuries (boxing mouthguards), etc.

Caries is the disease of dental tissue, proceeding with the mandatory presence of microorganisms, resulting in the formation of its functional and aesthetic defects.

Cystis is a cavity in the jaw bone around the tooth root.

Wedge-shaped defect is the destruction of the dental tissue near its base (neck) that occurs in the result of chronic overload, often due to bruxism.

Congelation is excision with a heated tool.

Ring is the basic part of the orthodontic apparatus with a special lock fixing intraoral bows, face bows and bumpers.

Composite is a type of plastics with a high content of inorganic filler.

Filling relining is removal of roughness and overhanging edges of the filling material using tools.

Dental dum is a special latex bar to isolate the tooth from the rest of the oral cavity and saliva.

Post-and-core inlay is a molded construction, which is individually manufactured in the laboratory. It is fixed in the canals of the root of the tooth for further restoration of the crown part of the tooth.

Curettage (of the alveolar sockets) is scraping (scrubbing) of the alveolar socket from granulations, chronic foci of infection, foreign bodies (filling material, tooth flakes, etc.)

Laser treatment is a therapeutic effect of laser radiation to create optimal conditions in living tissues to restore them to normal condition.

Suture is a thin metal wire or elastic ring with the help of which the bar is fixed to the braces.

Lingual – lingua is translated as the tongue. Braces system, which is strengthened from the inside of the teeth, is called lingual.

The facial arch is an additional orthodontic fixture used in conjunction with the braces to prevent forward and backward movement of the lateral teeth.

The face mask is an additional orthodontic device used with the braces to stimulate the growth of the upper jaw and normalize the inclination of the upper front teeth.

Flap surgery is a surgery to remove inflamed tissue, deep-seated under the gum or calculus is done by open access: the gum is dissected, the altered tissue is removed and the gum is sutured.

Matrix is a special tape often made of celluloid or metal, covering the tooth and helping to form a filling of the correct shape.

Mesial bite is an anomaly characterized by the anterior position of the lower jaw bone.

Local anaesthesia is anesthesia of one or more teeth by introducing an anesthetic drug substance into soft tissues.

A bridgework is a fixed structure consisting of several metal-ceramic crowns and artificial teeth, which is fixed on the supporting teeth and fills the missing space between them.

The implant-supported bridge is a fixed structure consisting of several metal-ceramic crowns and artificial teeth, which is fixed either on implants (that is, titanium rods implanted into the jaw) or on the implant and abutment teeth and fills the missing space between the teeth.

Periosteal coverage is a thin layer of dense connective tissue that covers the surface of a jaw bone.

Obliteration is a narrowing or closing the lumen of something, e.g. tooth canal due to age-related, inflammatory changes, or previous treatment.

Obturation is the filling of the tooth canal with the tooth filling material (pasta, gutta-percha).

Single ceramic crown is a type of a crown that is made of ceramic and is cemented on the pre-treated tooth.

Single metal ceramic crown is a crown that is made of metal frame lined with ceramics.

Surgery is a dissection of tissues, their excision or stitching.

Orthodontics is a section of dentistry, which is engaged in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of dental deformities.

Orthopantomogram (OPTG) is X-ray research of the dentition, which gives a picture of the state of the temporary and permanent teeth located in the jaws, temporomandibular joints, maxillary sinuses. It is required for diagnostics and treatment planning.

Orthopedics is a section of dentistry that deals with the compensation of defects in the visible part of teeth, in the absence of one or several teeth, with complete or partial loss of teeth.

Osteomyelitis is an inflammation of the bone tissue and bone marrow. There is acute (clinical picture is similar with acute periodontitis) and chronic. Intensive therapy is required.

Whitening is a change of the teeth color in the bright side under the action of whitening preparations, most often hydrogen peroxide compounds.

Edema (flux) is the accumulation of fluid in soft tissues as a result of injury or inflammation.

Open curettage of the gingival pocket is the removal of deep-lying dental deposits and inflamed tissue with open access with dissection of the gums, followed by polishing the surface of the tooth root and suturing the gums. This is done in the case of deep damage to the tissues surrounding the tooth, an extensive deep inflammatory process.

An open occlusion is an anomaly characterized by a lack of closure between the upper and lower teeth, often in the anterior part.

Periodontitis is an inflammation of the tissues surrounding the tooth, with the involvement of bone tissue.

Periodontology is a section of dentistry that studies the norm and pathology of the tissues surrounding a tooth.

Pathological abrasion is the process of increased abrasion of tooth enamel, leading to a sometimes significant decrease in the height of the clinical crown of the tooth.

Relocation of a removable denture is the adjustment of the surface of the removable denture to the oral cavity mucosa that has changed from prolonged wearing of the denture, by applying a new layer of plastic.

Pericoronitis is an inflammation of the soft tissues due to obstructed tooth cutting. Most often occurs in the area of the last molars, due to the lack of space for the complete cutting of the tooth, which leads to soft tissue injury when biting, disruption of self-cleaning processes and inflammation.

Periodontium is a complex set of tissues from cells and fibers that hold the tooth in the bone hole.

Periodontitis is an inflammation of periodontal tissues. Causes: injury, the complication of caries.

Periostitis is an inflammation of the periosteal coverage with the formation of the serious and then suppurative focus between the bone and periosteal coverage. It is the complication of the periodontitis. It is characterized by the appearance of a pronounced swelling of soft tissues, pain, significant changes in the general condition. Requires urgent surgical care. Periosteotomy and general therapy are performed. Often there is a temporary disability for 3-5 days.

Periosteotomy is the dissection of the periosteum with partial detachment from the bone. Often accompanied by the installation of drainage.

Perforation is a hole, a connection of something with something. More often the perforation is connected with the bottom of the cavity of a tooth, its walls or root. Occurs as a consequence of the carious process, or a complication during the mechanical processing of tooth tissues.

A complete denture is a removable denture consisting of 14 artificial teeth located on a wide plate made of plastic in the color of the gum. This prosthesis is used in case of total absence of the teeth on the upper or lower jaw.

Dissection is the excision of hard tooth tissues using instruments, burs or a laser.

Bite is a closing of the upper and lower dentition.

Pulp is a neurovascular bundle located in the cavity of the tooth – the pulp chamber.

Pulpitis is a disease of the tooth pulp (dental nerve) of inflammatory origin, most often with the presence of microorganisms and their metabolic products or as a result of an injury.

Radiovisiograph is a special dental system for obtaining X-ray images. An electronic sensor or a matrix is used as a device that takes X-rays from an X-ray machine and then transforms them into an image on a monitor in a computer. It allows to reduce the dose to the patient up to 10 times and make the X-ray examination almost safe.

Resection of the apex of the root is an operation that is performed to remove a chronic lesion of infection at the apex of the root.

Resection is an excision, removal of a part (bone or root).

Reconstruction is the process of changing the shape of a tooth, by applying a filling material on it.

Restoration is the reconstruction of the shape of a tooth lost as a result of a carious process or injury.

Tooth replantation is tooth transplantation onto its previous location (in its own alveolar socket).

Tooth apposition is a setting of the dislocated tooth to its original position.

Retainer (retention apparatus) is an apparatus that fixes the result of orthodontic movement of teeth. This may be a plastic removable or a non-removable metal device, which is glued on the inner side of the teeth. Wearing time is from several months or years to life.

Impaction is an unerupted tooth that is in the jaw bone.

Gingival retraction is an exposure of the tooth root.

Fistulous tract is a channel in the jaw bone, connecting the granuloma or cyst with the oral cavity.

Separation is the aesthetic contouring of the teeth, reducing the thickness of the enamel of the side surfaces of the teeth with special dental instruments, followed by a protective coating in order to create the correct shape and get additional space in order to move the teeth.

Sinus augmentation is a surgery on the maxillary sinus in the result of which the volume of the alveolar bone is increased for the subsequent introduction of the implant.

Pickup impressions are the imprints of the teeth for which special material is used. Diagnostic models are cast with the help of the pickup impressions.

Mixed dentition is the period when temporary teeth are replaced with the permanent teeth at the age of 5-6 – 12-13.

Scaling is the removal of the superficial pigmentary or microbial plaque and dental calculus from the crown or root part of the tooth.


Dentistry is a science that studies the structure, function of the tissues of the oral cavity and diseases that manifest themselves in the dental system.

Tooth stud is a decoration of gold, composite or ceramics, glued to the front surface of the tooth.

Simple removable apparatus (removable plate) is an orthodontic removable construction, which consists of a plastic base adjacent to the oral mucosa and teeth.

Removable apparatus with additional active elements is an orthodontic removable construction, which consists of a plastic base adjacent to the oral mucosa and teeth, and screws welded into it, spring, wire parts that make the movement of the teeth possible.

Removable denture for children is a removable orthodontic structure for replacing temporary removed or permanent teeth in children.

Teleroentgenogram is an overview X-ray of the skull (can be direct or lateral), in which the bone skeleton and soft tissues are projected. It is a necessary part of the diagnosis and treatment plan.

Therapy (transl. treatment) is the science that studies the causes, course, methods of treatment and prevention of diseases.

Trepanation of the tooth crown is the excision of tooth tissue to ensure access to the root canals.

Locked jaw is an obstructed (incomplete) opening of the mouth as a result of spasm (contraction) of the masticatory muscles.

The deepening of the vestibule of the oral cavity is a surgery that allows the movement of soft tissues to create a hollow in the vestibule of the oral cavity.

Removal of granulomas is a surgical procedure to remove the inflamed tissue of the oral cavity. It can be performed in two ways: removal of the granuloma with the tooth or resection of the root apex.

Implant installation is a surgery during which a bone bed is created, where the implant is then inserted.

The file is a thin metal instrument of complex structure for processing the walls of the root canal. It may be manual or machine (for the tip).

Photodynamic therapy is a method of treating periodontal diseases, which consists of the influence of the laser on a microflora pretreated with a special photosensitizing preparation. This method leads to the death of microorganisms and further carious defect.

Fissure is a natural sulcus n the hard tissues of the tooth crown (enamel). Fissures are difficult to clean, which leads to the accumulation of microbes, and further to the formation of a carious defect.

Floss (dental floss) is a hygiene product for cleaning interdental spaces.

Functional appliances are the removable devices stimulating the growth of the jaws due to the normalization of the functions of the muscles of the maxillofacial region.

Surgery is a branch of medicine that studies diseases, the main method of treatment of which is surgery.

The surgical guide (template) is a removable plate that allows precise positioning of the place and direction of insertion of the implant during the operation.

Cystectomy (cyst excision) is a surgical procedure to remove the cyst.

Partial removable plate prosthesis is a removable prosthesis which consists of artificial teeth located on a plate made of special plastic in the color of the gum.

Bite splinting is the elimination of the tooth mobility by its joining with another tooth.

Filling polishing is smoothing of the tooth fillings and adjusting it to the patient’s bite.

Exudate is a tissue fluid accumulation (serous), may contain microbial products (purulent), or blood (hemorrhagic).


Avanto (Center) Dental Clinic

стоматология в киеве центр

1. By Metro – Palace Ukraine, walk to the side of Predslavynska St., left turn into Novopecherskyi Lane. The clinic is placed in Prestige Hall residential complex, the entrance is from the side of Vasyl Tyutyunnik St.
2. By car – you can get to the central entrance to the clinic from Ionna Pavla II St. (the former – Patrisa Lumumby St.), turn into Vasyl Tyutyunnik St.

Avanto (Podil) Dental Clinic

киев стоматология подольский район

1. By Metro – Kontraktova Ploshcha, walk on the street Kostiantynivska towards “Zhovten” cinema. The entrance to “cinematographic” arche.
2. By car – you can get to the central entrance of the clinic from Kostiantynivska St. through “cinematographic” arche. It is also possible to park a car in the parking lot near the square on the street Yaroslavska.

Avanto (Pechersk) Dental Clinic

киев стоматология печерский район

1. By Metro – Pecherska, walk on the street Lasya Ukrainka to the side of The Ivan Bohun Military High School. The building where the clinic is placed is located behind the CEC building and has a wave-shaped roof.
2. By car – the first arrival to the central entrance of the clinic is possible from Lesya Ukrainka St. behind The Ivan Bohun Military High School. Also it is possible to get there from the side of Staronavodnytska St., the turn is near the pointer of TSARSKY sport club. The building where the clinic is placed has a wave-shaped roof.